The Fortran 2003 standard constitutes a strong foundation of “modern Fortran”. Modern Fortran (Fortran ≥ 2003) is so different in capabilities and coding style from Fortran 77 as to be a distinct, highly backward compatible language. Almost all of Fortran 95 was incorporated into Fortran 2003, except for a few obscure little used and confusing features deprecated and already unsupported by some popular compilers.
Writing to console effectively:
write(*,*) grew out of non-standard use of Fortran 66’s
write statement that was introduced for device-independent sequential I/O.
write(*,*) became part of Fortran 77 for printing to console standard output, the Fortran 77
write command is not needed,
write is needed more distinct.
Assembly language comparison:
print *,'hi' and
write(*,*) 'hi' are IDENTICAL in assembly, within each of multiple compilers (gfortran, flang, ifx) as it should be.
In general, disassemble Fortran executables with:
gfortran myprog.f90 objdump --disassemble a.out > myprog.s
Fortran 2003 finally settled the five-decade old ambiguity over console I/O with the intrinsic
iso_fortran_env module, which is often invoked at the top of a Fortran module like:
module mymod use, intrinsic:: iso_fortran_env, only: stdout=>output_unit, stdin=>input_unit, stderr=>error_unit
=> operators are here for renaming (they have other meanings for other Fortran statements).
It’s not necessary to rename, but it’s convenient for the popularly used names for these console facilities.
Recommendation: routine console printing:
print *,'my text'
For advanced console printing, whether to output errors, use non-advancing text, or toggle between log files and printing to console, use
write(stdout,*) or the like.
Example: print to stdout console if output filename not specified
use, intrinsic:: iso_fortran_env, only: stdout=>output_unit implicit none (type, external) character(:), allocatable :: filename character(256) :: buf integer :: i, u call get_command_argument(1, buf, status=i) if (i==0) then filename = trim(buf) ! Fortran 2003 auto-allocate print *, 'writing to ',filename open(newunit=u, file=filename, form='formatted') else u = stdout endif i = 3 ! test data write(u,*) i, i**2, i**3 if (u /= stdout) close(u) ! closing stdout can disable text console output, and writes to file `fort.6` in gfortran print *,'goodbye' ! end program implies closing all file units, but here we close in case you'd use in subprogram (procedure), where the file reference would persist. end program
Non-advancing stdout/stdin (for interactive Fortran prompts)