magnetic bottle: pitch angle distribution vs. mirror height equipotential lines -> parallel E-field (Stephen Knight 1970) -> Large scale, dull auroral arc
- inertial alfven wave connection to parallel E-field
fine scale arcs assosciated with Farley-Buneman instabilities, GPS scintillation
energy to produce electron-ion pair ionization potential ~ 18 eV takes on average ~ 35 eV
energy deposition physics
single particle motion, 3 adiabatic invariants, Debye length, two fluid vector potential
Alfven wave can couple to whistler mode
Auroral emissions: Bohr model of atom. have to release energy gap between orbitals (work function). Vibrational modes
Ions: closure current electrons: field aligned current
Inertial alfven wave: electron mass matters due to phase speed > speed of light F=ma inertial limit inerital lag – prevents group velocity from exceeding speed of light
λe = c / ωpe electron skin depth confines wave
Matthew Zettergren Ph.D. thesis discusses kinetic reactions resulting in auroral emissions, upon which my Ph.D. research is based.
- Borovsky 1993 “Auroral arc thicknesses as predicted by various theories”, JGR: Space Physics.
- Chaston 2003 “Width and brightness of auroral arcs driven by inertial Alfven waves”, JGR: Space Physics.
- Kivelson and Russell